A Mende Glossary
On this page I will attempt to explain (if not exactly define) some words and expressions that Salia Koroma uses. They aren’t, every one of them, all necessarily difficult or unusual words or expressions; the uncommon ones bear testament to a world long gone.
This glossary would appear haphazard, and this is deliberate. I’ve no intention whatsoever (which is to say, there’ll be no attempt) to give you an alphabetical list.
A word about pronunciation:
– e in final positions is acute accented (he pronounced hay);
–i is pronounced like the English e
–mb and nd are single articulations, slightly nasalised b and d, not m followed by a b or an n followed by a d.
–kp and gb are single articulations, the gb sound being the voiced mirror image of the kp sound when consonant mutation occurs. Eg. kpaleh (intr. v.) to pain, hurt, or smart, can become gbaleh depending on the word it is contiguous to. Mutation occurs very frequently in Mende: F/V; T/L/D/Nd; K/G/; J/S; L/Nd; P/W/B, etc.
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Banga (n., indef.): an open space in the middle of a village or town, an open public area in a town or village. The definite form of the noun is Bangei (pronounced “ba/ngay”).
Kobanga (koh/ba/nga, n., indef.): a kobanga was a “banga” in a war town; muster ground. Koh means war, so kobanga was essentially a parade ground for the warriors. This is where they mustered before and after a war. Kobangei (def. noun).
Palii (n.): pool (the deep part of a river or stream). In Mende mythology, it is the seat of water spirits and the ancestors.
Fombo (v., transitive): to unfurl, to unfold, to lay out, to stretch out
Vombo, (unvoiced, Fombo)(n., indef.): a (water) current. Vombui/Vomboi is the definite form of the noun.
Nje loh lani Sefadu liandia
Njei na ta tolia Gbensa
Eh leh eh ye
Vombo gbi hun
There is a water in the middle of Sefadu
That water is called Gbensa
It neither flows up nor down
It has no current
Salia Koroma, Fishing For Our Father.
Bawo (v., contracted to bao/bau), to save, to deliver, to heal, to cure. to set free.
Bawoya, (contracted to Bauya, Baoya in informal speech) (n.): deliverance, salvation
Bawoma/Baoma (n.) haven, refuge
Baomoh (n. indef., baomui, n., def.): one who rescues or redeems, saviour
Bayi (n.): blessing, God’s favour
Luba: (n.): blessing. It is also a proper noun, a girl’s name.
(v.): to bless, e.g. Ngewo i bi luba (may God bless you).(adj.): blessed, sometimes constructed with the prefix “ma.” E.g. Maria maluba goi =the Blessed ((Virgin)) Mary
Gaii/ Gayi (n.): forge, smithy; also anvil
Kebbi (n.): smith. It’s also a proper noun, a man’s name
Gaimoh (n., indef.; gaimoi is the definite form): smith
Gbanya (n., indef.; gbanyei is the definite form): tongs, blacksmith’s pincers. It’s also a man’s name.
Ya (n.): suffix, equivalent to the common -hood, -ism, -ship, -y suffixes in English. This ending, added to the stem of the word in Mende denotes a state or condition.
Ex., Te= to pass, to surpass, to go past. tema=to control, to tyrannise.
Temaya= dominion, supremacy. mahaya= the state of being a chief/ king, majesty
Jianyoh (n): fellow traveller, travelling companion
Heinyoh (n.): neighbour
Heinyoya (n.) neighbourliness
Heimoh (n.): neighbour
Hota (n.): stranger, visitor, guest
Hota nje (n): landlady, hostess
Hota ke (n.): host, landlord
Kenye (n.): land, country, nation; the wider world; foreign parts.
A proper noun, a girl’s name, one born in a strange land.
Kenyemoh (n.): a foreigner, someone who isn’t Mende. (kenyemui, def. form of the noun)
Kenye yia (n.): language, foreign language
Kuhamoh (koamoh/kuamoh, in informal speech) (n.): a foreigner, “one from afar.” (koamui, def. form)
Kuhan (adv.): far, a long way from, afar
(adj.): long, tall
Jongoboti (n.): a beanpole, a stringbean, an especially tall person
Kaveh (v.): to eat voraciously, overfilling the mouth
Kapu (v.): to devour, to rob, to plunder, grab forcefully
Kapu hani (n.): booty, plunder, property gained by force
Kapumoh (n.): plunderer, thief
Huma (v.): to steal, to rob
Huma hani (n.): stolen goods, plunder
Humamoh (n.): thief, robber
Joombui (n.): sin
Joombu Hinda (n.): sin, sinful way, something sinful
Joombu Hinde We (v.): to sin, to commit a sin, do something sinful
Kaye (n.): sin, fault, transgression
Kaye (v.): to free of guilt or fault; justify.
-You’ll note that Kaye is a contronym-
When one replies to the question “Kahui ye na?(how are you/how do you do?) with “Kaye i Ngewoh ma” (thank God),” what you’re in fact saying is “(I find) No fault with God, God is faultless.”
Gaye (see Kaye): v. to confess a fault, a wrongdoing, a sin
Kpaleh (n.): pain. grief, grievance, grudge
Kpaleh (v.): to hurt, to pain
Kpaleh-gbia (v.): to complain, to outline a grievance
Kpaleh-gbiamoh (n.): complainant, a person who tells a grievance
Pondo lo (n.): an orphan (Most times it’s shortened to just pondo)
Pohani (n.): an heirloom, an inheritance. (Pohai, in informal Mende)
Pondo nyaha (n.): widow
Pondo hini (n.): widower
Pondoya (n.): orphanhood. (Pondoyei= defi.)
Kugba (n.; kugbei is the definite form): officer, captain, leader
Kokugba (n.): war officer, general, captain of a party of warriors
Maha(n.): king, chief, queen, leader. (def. noun: mahei; Plural forms are mahanga, mahangeisia, and maheisia)
Lavali (n.): an official who represents and speaks on behalf of “ndoh mahei” (the paramount chief), literally an advocate, a paramount chief’s principal counsel ; a lavali is a ‘prime ministerial’ position.
Mahalo (n.): a freeborn, freeman, citizen, literally “child of a chief.”
Nduwoh (n.): a slave
Nduwoya (n.): slavery, bondage
Kpomba (n.): a pledge, security (for a loan)
Kpombaya (n.): the state of being under pledge
Pu kpombaya hun (v.): to pawn, “to place under pledge.”
Ngumawo (v.; ngumao in informal speech): to redeem from slavery or bondage, to ransom, to regain from a pledge.
Wumawo (v.): See Ngumawo above.
Sama (n.): a nobleman, prince, chief. By extension a person of rank through wealth or power, a worthy.
Sama Hinda (n.): aristocratic behaviour
Samaya (n.): nobility, the state of being a “sama.” (Samayei= def.)
Sawa (n., Saa in informal speech): law, rule, commandment; a ban, a prohibition. (Sawei). Ex.: Maha a sawei la ngi lileh kpe loh= A king makes the law in his moment of contentment, Mende proverb.
Johwoh (n., indef.): iron chain (Johwei, def. noun)
Sawo ( adv.; in informal speech: Sao): no, not.
Fale 1(conj.): therefore. 2 (n.): reason, as in “Ji vale/Aji fale=for this reason.”
Keh (conj. and adv.): and, then, thus, yet, so that, then.
Sulleh (n.): waterfall, rapids in a river; noise.
Popa (n.): a lake, also a puddle. (Popei)
Ti (n.): island
Njagbo (n.): a lake-like body of shallow water attached to a river or stream
Kpoli (n): a creek, stream
Batii (n.): a field, usually one that’s seasonally flooded.
Tombo (n.): a ghost town, an abandoned village. (Tombui/tomboi).
Njaneneh (n): a water strider
Njalo (n): a mythical water spirit with a shiny, silvery head and the body of a snake.
Tingo (n.): a rivermaid (mermaid), a female water spirit that’s half human and half fish. When used figuratively it means a beautiful woman.
Siboni (n.): filthiness, slime, muck, foul and disease-ridden matter, rubbish
Njagbili (n.): rain clouds. (Njagbii, in informal speech)
Ligbili (adj.): cloudy, mucky
Konu (n.): branch of a palm tree
Jaja (n.): the hard, serrated thorns on a palm branch
Mbeke (n., indef.; Mbekei = def.): a tree branch.
Fama (n.): greetings, salutation, a social call, a visit. (In consonant mutation, it becomes Vama)
Va (v.): to greet, to call on, to visit, to shake hands, to send regards
Va (n.): news, information (Vei)
Va ve (v.): to give news, to bring up-to-date, to apprise (someone) of
Tonya (n.): truth, honesty, rightness, certainty, correctness
(adj.): true, right, just, honest, truthful. Ex. Tonya moh mia a biye= You’re an honest person.
Tonya hinda (n.): truthfulness, justice, righteousness
Totu (n.): messenger, usually between lovers
Ex. Ngi gahue keh ngi totu mo lua= Before I could cross it (the border) I saw a messenger, S. Koroma.
To (v): to send, to dispatch, to commission;
to point, to aim. (Depending on the word next to it, To mutates to Lo, or to Do in the kpa-Mende dialect)
Tomoh (n.): a messenger
Tobla (n., pl.): messengers, apostles, as in Tobla Ti Wehindesia =Acts of the Apostles
To (v. tr.): to erect, to build, to stand (something) up;
(v. intr.): to stand. (Mutates to Lo depending on its environment. It mutates to Do in kpa-Mende).
Tombu (n.): a back-up singer, by extension chorus
Kendeh (v.): to drag or to pull, like a net; to lead forcefully, as with captives.
Gendeh (v.): see Kendeh above.
Gendei (n): an assemblage, a crowd brought together by compulsion. (See Gendeh)
Kposo (n.): a trap made mostly of earth that crushes the game when it’s triggered.
Mani (n.): a trap, the generic name for any trap. Note: there’s a specific name for each trap
Bembi/Bimbi (n): a round net with a rigid stick frame for fishing in creeks, streams and shallow ends of rivers.
Kala (n.): a fish trap set in a weir or dam (Kaa)
Mbumbu /Mbumbui (n.): a fish pot
Piyei (n.): fish basket
Kanyama (n.): window (Kanyami, definite form of the noun)
Fogba (v., transitive): to hit, to strike, to whip
Gbakpa (v., transitive): to fasten, to nail, to plant (as a stake or a pillar), to strengthen,
2. (v., intransitive) to kneel
Baa (n.): respect, honour, worth, value (of people), price
Bagoma (n.):, respect, honour, worth ( “Ba goh ma”, literally, recognise the worth of someone, or give respect/honour to )
Songoi/Jongoi (n.): price, value, worth of something
Salo (n.): orange (in the kpa, Sewama and Wanjama dialects of Mende)
Lumbei (n.): orange (in the koh-Mende dialect)
Lumbi (n.) lime (in kpa-, Sewama, Wanjama dialects)
Lumbei Nyenye (n.): lime (koh-Mende dialect)
Faka (n.): eaves (Fakei, def. form)
Sindei (n.): eaves, rainwater gathered from eaves
Chindei (see Sindei above)
Sende (v.): to strain, to pour (liquid)
Chende (v.): see Sende above
Kpakpa Gohtu (n.): a rock buried with amulets and medicine when a village or town was founded, the amulets as protection and the rock as a symbol of permanence and indestructibility. A rock wasn’t always used, in which case we’re dealing with just a “kpakpa.”
(In many songs Salia refers to himself as “Kpakpa-gohti, Ta-Luva”.)
Kama (adj.): unusual, weird, odd, wonderful, out of the ordinary, unexpected, marvelous, marvel, strange, magical.
For emphasis the word is often duplicated (kama kama), the first kama playing the intensive adjectival role of “very” or “too” in English
Kamala or Kama (n.): Poro Society meeting ground, also the entrance/gate to the Poro bush (or meeting place)
Kamasoh/Kamajoh (n.): historically a skilled hunter of big and dangerous game like elephants and bush cows, such a hunter was reputedly skilled in magic arts.
Kanjia (adj.; n., masc): a quarrelsome man, a contentious person; a proper noun
Manjia (adj.; n., fem.) a quarrelsome woman, a proper noun given to a girl whose pregnancy was characterised by discord between the parents
Sekkulo (def. Sekkului) (n.): a speckled hawk. Sekkui, in informal speech
Sekpendeh (n.): a greyish hawk
Bimbaon (n.): dummy, dimwit, dullard
Kande (adj.): unusual, curious, weird, complicated, freakish, astonishing,critical
Gande (v.): to confuse, to throw (someone) into confusion, to confound, to puzzle/to be puzzled, to befuddle, to dazzle
Bottani (n.): clenched fist. (bottai, informal)
Ndapi (n.): a fight, skirmish, battle
Koh (n): war. (def.= koi)
Lappi (v.): to fight
Goh (v.): to do battle
Kakpa (v.): to besiege, to encircle, to surround, to plot against, to conspire against
Koi kakpa nya ma/ Gbeh ngi nunga loi ti wa
(I’m under siege/So I’ll call for relief to come)
-Salia Koroma, Janeneh Bembe
Kakpa hinda (n.): conspiracy
Kakala (v.): to encircle (with), to go around. (Kaa, or kakaa, in informal speech).
-(adj.): windy, crooked
Jowo (n.): enemy, foe (def.= jowui)
Kpindi (n.): night, darkness, obscurity
Kpindiweleh (n.): prison (inf.=kpindiweh), literally, house of darkness
Kafa (adj.): crooked, dishonest, deceitful
Kafa (v.): to cheat, to swindle
Gafa (v.) See Kafa above
Sassi (v.): eschew, abstain, avoid (someone/something) as if it would contaminate, to treat with contempt
Jassi (v.): see Sassi above
Sondeh (v.) : to hold in contempt (by sucking air through the teeth), to insult (thus), to sneer at, to slight
Jondeh (v.) see Sondeh above. (Jondeh is the voiced mirror image of Sondeh)
Sondei (n.): contempt expressed by sucking air through the teeth
Ka (n.): a male honorific for mythic, historic and legendary people and characters. Ex., the spider of folk tales is called KaSillo; founding fathers of chiefdoms had the Ka in front of their names, KaYamba, KaKowa
Yama (v.): to return, to go back, to put back
Gama (v.) see Yama
Yogobe (adv.): an echomimetic meaning: among other things, every which way, in a haphazard manner
Ndake (n.): fellow, mate, comrade, man, peer, colleague. It’s used among men of the same age group, or an older man to younger one.
Ndovo (n.): toad
Gboniaya (n.): quandry, a headache, a complexe situation, a place of lamentation, a situation that could lead to grief
Gbonyeh (v.): to compain, murmur, bemoan
Kpulli (n.): knurl (on a tree)
Kputi (n.): tadpole
Bongloh (n.): tadpole, in the kpa-Mende dialect
Gona (v.): to report to, to present
Magona (v.): see Gona above
Komeh (v.): to meet, to accost, to approach
Komeh (n.): meeting, gathering, assembly, feast, festivities
– a girl’s name, one born during a festive season
Gomeh (v.): see Komeh above
Fiti fata (adv.): anyhow, any which way, disorderly, freely, willy-nilly
Kulii (n.): pen, coop, enclosure for bathing
Lato (v.): to praise, to acclaim, to glorify, to exalt. From la (mutation of nda, ndei): name + to: to raise, to lift up, to erect, to build up.
Bato (v.): to praise, to glorify. From Ba (respect, worth, honour, value)+ to (to raise, to lift up)
Bijeh (v.): to praise, to pay reverence (to)
Pennei (n): ringworm
Kanii (n.): precious or semi-precious metal, money. Kani-gboli (red metal) can refer to gold, brass and copper. Kani-goli (white metal) is silver.
Gbanda (n.) (gbandei): baldness (on top of the head and towards the back)
Yeleh (n.) (yelei): baldness (from the forehead towards the top of the head)
Gbasondeh (n.): tree frog
Mbaka (mbakei) (n.): a robust,coiled forest vine used as rope, accordion rope; accordion ( the name was applied to the accordion when the Mende came in contact with the instrument in the late 19th, early 20th centuries).
Kpavenja (adj.): rude, ill-mannered, vulgar, offensive
Hakeh (n.): curse, malediction
Haketo (n.): an excuse
Haketo (v.): to excuse, to pardon
Simalii (n.): fresh (new), very limpid palm oil
Gloh gboli (n.): palm oil, literally red oil
Gloh (n.): oil, fat, lard
Nda gloh (n.): palm kernel oil
Fakali (fakai) (n.): pawpaw (papaya)
Fakai (n.):, a small village, hamlet, a place of no significance
Sii (n.): tops
Tokpoh (n.): oil palm tree
Toma (n.): rank, standing, meaning, signification.
Ex: “Keh ti kpeleh ti loe toma hoe” -S. Koroma, Fishing for Our Father. (But indeed each one had a meaning unto itself
Popo (v.): to carry on the back, as with a baby, to ride piggyback
Pimeh (v.) to run
Wimeh (v.): see Pimeh above
Tomoh tomoh (adj.): lukewarm, tepid
Taotao (adj.): (of food) tasteless, bland, without flavour
Tava tava (adj.): rubbery (of food)
Kona (n.): axe (Konii, def.)
Kona (v.): to give a report, to account (for), to give an account (of), to answer
Gona (v.): see Kona above
Konigui (n.): centipede, literally “axe-head”
Ndondoh (n.): millipede
Kaa Londoh (n.): flat-backed millipede
Timi timii (n.): pins and needles, numbness
Dumbeh (n.): half-wit, moron
Kalii (n.): a hoe
Sondu (n.): imprecations, curse,
(v.):to wish harm on, to invoke malediction
Chondu (n.): see Sondu above
Sondo (v.): to tie (the mouth of a bag), to shut tight (as with a drawstring)
Chondo (v.): see Sondo above
Gowo (v., trans.): to take flight, to fly, to float (in the air)
Bubu (v., trans): to fly
Ndigbi (n.): heel
Ngombi (n.): knee; also a proper noun, a man’s name
Wombi (n.) see Ngombi above (consonant mutation)
Vovoh (n., indef.; vovoi, is the definite form of the noun): lungs, bellows
Ndo (n., indef.): child, descendant (ndui, def. noun)
Lo/Lui (indef def. nouns when consonant mutation occurs): child/ the child
Lenga (n.): children, descendants, lineage, offspring. (There’re two chiefdoms in the Bo District with “Lenga” in their names: (a) Niawa Lenga (or Nyawa Lenga), Scions of Nyawa, and (b) Selenga, Scions of Sei)
Kekeh (n.): father
Keh (n.): dad
Nkeh (n., kpa-Mende): dad
Keh (v.): to show, to demonstrate, to illustrate; to instruct, to teach
Kaa (v.): to teach, to instruct; to learn
Gaa (v.): see Kaa above
Kamoh (n.): teacher, master
Kaalopo (indef., n.): pupil, learner, student (kalopoei/kaalupui, def.)
Beh (pronounced be-eh; pronoun intensifier): self. Example: Nyabeh, tabeh, tiabeh, muabeh– myself, him/herself, themselves, ourselves
Beh (pronounced beh; adj.): fitting, becoming, appropriate, well-suited
(v.): to fit, to suit.
Daon (adj.): bright, shiny
Temui (n.): a dwarfish mythical being that lives in the forest.
Ndogbo Joso/Ndogbo yoso (n.): a mythical forest being that leads solitary walkers astray, with the intent to change them from their human form and to keep them as slaves. (Ndogbo Joso means “Magician of the Bush”).
Kalikonjo (n.): a mythical forest being
Kenji (n.): the seed of the raffia palm
Kenjigulo (n.): a venomous snake, colour of the kenji.
Kayi (adj.): rust, rusty, rusted
Nenemoh (n.): spy
Naa (n.): now, presently, at this moment
Miji (n.): needle
Fande (n.): thread
Tikpoh (n.): walking stick, cane
Kenneh (n.): edge, (along the) length.
Eg. “Ngi hinteh woh Teye ma; ngi loe kenneh ma, ngi leffoh a Teye na” ( I then came upon the Teye River; I went along its length, upstream that Teye I went.”) — Salia Koroma, Fishing for our Father
(adj.): sharp (blade)
Mamani (adj.): vain, conceited, proud, arrogant, stuck-up
Bomuko (n.): dove
Hoke (n.): guinea fowl
Nunni (n.): otter
Mayigande (n.): sharp dresser, clotheshorse, dandy. From Mayi, to dress, + Gande (mutated from Kande), to befuddle, to dazzle
Kokobiyoko/Kokobioko (n.): abracadabra, hocus-pocus
Hele/Hilli (n.): elephant
Ndamba (n.): crocodile
Panda (adv.): well, completely, fully, carefully
Langa (n.): insolence, defiance, impertinence, disrespect
(adj.): mischievous, miscreant, cheeky
Ngomani/Ngomeni (n.): obedience, dutifulness
(adj.): respectful, obedient, faithful, dutiful
Patui (n.): journey, travel, adventure, aimless travel. The origin is from colonial-era administrative English, patrol, a quasi-military excursion undertaken by a district commissioner to tour the area under his jurisdiction. It must have seemed aimless.
Bamande (n.): bell
Bekkeh (n., indef.): palm grub, larva of the rhinoceros beetle
Samba (v.): to give a gift, to give a present
Chamba or Jamba (v.): see Samba above
Sambei (n.): a gift, a present
Samba (n., indef.): basket
Sambo (v.): to shame, to dishonour, to disgrace
Jambo (v.): see Sambo above. (Consonant mutation has occured here)
Semeh (n.): an open-sided house, meeting house, courthouse
Ndokoh (n.): pillar, column, post, joist
Lohkoh (n.): see Ndokoh above; its mutated form
Semmeh Lokkoh: a nosey parker, a newsmonger. Literally, a meeting house post, but it’s meant in its figurative usage to mean a gossip. This expression refers to a tattler, as the pillar is humorously thought of as hearing all sorts of talks that go on in the semmeh, and that if it could talk, it would pass on any unverifiable news.
Sao (proper n.): name given to the first born of twins
Jinna (proper n.): name given to the second born of twins
Gbessay (proper n.): name of a child born after twins
Jekeh (indef. n.): a rattle (jekei, def. noun)
Nde (v.): to play, to beat, to hit
Le (v.): see Nde above
Feh (v.): to play (a wind instrument), to blow. ” Numu hokpa ta bulu le keh feh wati a hiti beh” = A nose is a trumpet but a time comes to blow/play it, Mende saying
Hama (n.): rainy season (Hamei)
Ngelevo (n.): dry season (Ngelevui)
Ngevo/ Ngevui : See Ngelevo/Ngelevui above. Shortened forms, used in everyday speech.
Ngele (n.): sky, the heavens
Ngelegohun (n.): heaven
Ngelebu (Ngebu) (n.): the earth, on earth, literally, ‘under the heavens,’ the world
Ngelebu Hinda (n.): the ways of the world, all that is manifest on earth
Ngewo (n.): God the creator, God.
Lehve (n.): God, the ancient word for God in the Mende creation myth.
Penipeni (adj.): sharp, pointed end.
Pepi (Pepe, koh-Mende dialect)(n.): tiny shrimp, usually used as an uncountable noun. Pepi are usually allowed to go high and used as flavouring in cooking.
Weniweni (v., adv.):to stream out, streaming
Wojuwoju (v., adv.): to stream forth, streaming out
Woji (n.): pudenda
Woji (adj.): lewd, lascivious, horny, lecherous;
Wojigbeh (v.): to whore about, to fornicate, to have sex, to sleep around
Wojigbemoh (adj.): a promiscuous person, philanderer. Literally, “one-who-chases- pudenda.”
Tewi (n.): bush cow, the reddish short-horned West African buffalo
Tupu (n.): Sierra Leone/Liberian forest (West African) puff adder, extremely venomous. (Tupui, def. noun)
Tewutewi (adj.): from the word Tewi, to describe cassava that doesn’t become soft when it’s cooked and is reddish in hue. This would happen to cassava roots that have remained too long in the ground beyond their harvesting time. Can also be referred to as Tewu langay
Totonyo (n., adj.): wrinkles, wrinkled
Toh (n.): good name, repute, reputation, fame
Tohwa (n.): great fame, great renown, great acclaim
Towama (n.): “place of great renown” (the name of a village in the Tikonko Chiefdom, the site of a former Teachers’ Training College, now one of the constituent colleges of Njala University).
Tumbu (n): a dwarf
Lumbe (v.): to rebuke (someone) loudly, to slam, to bellow, to roar (sea), rumble (thunder)
Kpawo (n.):an unmarried man or woman, a bachelor, a single
Kpawoya (n.): the state of being a single
Seneo (n.): congratulations, a congratulatory expression, well done
Jegunle (n.): albino (Jengui is the form used in normal every day speech)
Fe (n.): pot, bowl, jar
Ve (n.): See Fe above
Tawa Ve (n.): tobacco pipe (Tave is the informal, every day speech form)
Tawa (n.): tobacco
Haku (n.): tortoise (Hakui, def. noun)
Hainjo (n.): a recent graduate from the Sande or Poro
Togbeh (n.): mate, fellow, compeer, colleague (Only used among men who graduated from the Poro Society in the same cohort).
Togbeh (n.): young, immature (as it applies to animals). Ex., Nika logbeh =young cow, calf
Logbeh (Dogbeh, kpa-Mende): See the 2nd Togbeh above. (Consonant mutation).
Hunvo (v.): to go through, to escape, to go safely through, make one’s way from one end to the other (eg. “Te hun vo= go through a town”); experience, undergo
Jabeyia (n): innuendo, hint, an indirect coarse observation or biting talk (dropped in someone’s direction without specifically calling them by name but with enough information in it for the person to know that they’re the target). Jabeyiei (def. form)
Tondoh (n.): a large rat
Tondoh Mani (n.): rat trap
Totangi (n.): a trap to catch birds
Kibawo/Kibao (v): to dream
Kibawi/Kibaoi (n.): a dream
Henga (v.): dream
Hengawi/Hengaoi (n.): dream (Hengei)
Higboh (n.): a wasp that builds open nests
Jenjilo (n.): a large black spider
Silo (n.): spider (the generic name for spiders)
Jenjeh (n.): rubber tree, rubber obtained from the sap of the tree
Kabande (n.): miracle, a wonderful or curious thing
(adj.): miraculous, quirky, wild and out of sorts (behaviour)
Kpindiboh (n.): literally, “one who bores into darkness,” a person who roams the night, a nightwalker (with or without criminal intent; also, the term doesn’t necessarily have a moral judgement implied)
Kagbana (adj.): rascally, mischievous
Gbana (n.) rascal
Jiwi (n.): key
Kunda (n.): corner, nook
Kundei, def. form of noun Kunda. Ex., “Taa laye kundei na hun”= It’s in that corner
Kemu-kemu (n.): restlessness, dissatisfaction
Sogbeh (v.): to observe, to look at very closely, to note, to pay heed (to), to pay close attention (to)
Jogbeh (v.): see Sogbeh above
Jumbu (n.): sin, wickedness. (Jumbui: definte form of the noun)
Kpaleh (v.): to bemoan, to rue, to regret
Komi (n.): snot, nasal mucus
Kandi (n): a tree with a sugary-sour plum, called ‘monkey-apple tree’ in Krio. When used figuratively the Kandi (tree) in Mende represents fickleness, unreliability.
Kandi We (n.): fruit of the Kandi
Ligba (n.): the second highest official of the Sande society
Liho (n.): forebearance, tenacity, heart , long-suffering
Lindo (n.) bravery, courage (Lindui is the definite form of the noun)
Lilo (n.): bravery
Lombo (v.): to patch
Lomeh (adv.): quietly, silently, softly. The word is often replicated for extra emphasis. Ex.: “Nga jia lomeh lomeh ( I walk very softly, very quietly).”
Maga (v.): to dance to the time of music
Ka (v.): to dance
Make (n.): manners, civility
Makeh (v.): to raise, rear, to bring up, to tame (animals)
Makelo (v.): a ward, an adopted child
Makeveli (n.): ill-brought up (person or behaviour); Literally, ‘lacking manners.’
Makeveli (adj.): rude, uncivil, uncultured, ill-mannered. (From Make, ‘civility, manners’ + Felii, ‘privation, dearth, total lack .’)